The Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics (CAVE3) at Auburn University is dedicated to working with industry in developing and implementing new technologies for the packaging and manufacturing of electronics with special emphasis on the cost, harsh environment and reliability requirements of the vehicle industry.

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Center personnel work directly with the member companies to identify challenges and opportunities for new materials, processes and approaches to the production of electronics. The member companies select the research projects. Semi-annual project reviews, visits, monthly updates and frequent phone calls maintain a close interaction between the industrial members and Center researchers. CAVE3 currently has 30 members teamed up with Auburn representing material, component, equipment and electronics assembly companies.

Journal Publications
  • Lall, P., Zhang, H., Assessment of Lumen Degradation and Remaining Life of Light-Emitting Diodes Using Physics-Based Indicators and Particle Filter, ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging, Volume 137, No. 2, doi: 10.1115/1.4028957, pp. 1-10, June 2015
  • Lall, P., Wei, J., Prediction of L70 Life and Assessment of Color Shift for Solid State Lighting Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Volume. 15, No.1, doi 10.1109/TDMR.2014.2369859, pp. 1-15, March 2015.
  • Lall, P., Shantaram, S., Suhling, J., Locker, D., Stress-Strain Behavior of SAC305 at High Strain Rates, ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging, Volume 137, No. 1, doi:10.1115/1.4028641, pp. 1-16, March 2015.
  • Lall, P., Lowe, R., Comparison of Prognostic Health Management Algorithms for Assessment of Electronic Reliability Under Vibration, ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging, Volume 136, No. 4, doi:10.1115/1.4028163, pp. 1-8, December 2014.
  • Lall, P., Shantaram, S., Locker, D., High Strain Rate Properties of SAC105 and SAC305 Leadfree Alloys after Extended High Temperature Storage, Journal of the SMTA, Volume 27, No. 1, pp. 13-27, 2014

Announcements

Spring 2018:

Professor Lall Presents the AU Biometric Band at the NextFlex Innovation Day on September 20-21, 2017
CAVE3 had a booth at the NextFlex Innovation Day held in San Jose, CA on September 20-21, 2017. Professor Pradeep Lall presented the Biometric Band and LifeSaver App developed at Auburn University's NSF-CAVE3 Electronics Research Center. The biometric band is capable of acquiring vitals of the wearer and transmits them wirelessly to a paired smartphone. The band was designed, and fabricated, in the NSF-CAVE3 Electronics Research Center.

The intended application for the technology product demonstrator (TPD) is for operators working on the inspection and maintenance of aircraft fuel tanks. The fuel tanks are small, confined spaces, which reside in the fuselage and inside the wings of the aircraft. Inspection and maintenance operations require the operators to climb inside the confined space of the fuel tanks. Oxygen levels in a confined space may become depleted due to oxidation or depletion by another gas. The typical concentration of oxygen in the environment is 20.9 percent. When oxygen levels drop from 19.5 percent to 12 percent, judgment is impaired, and personnel may experience an increased pulse rate and fatigue. If levels drop from 12 percent to 6 percent, fatigue will worsen and nausea and vomiting will occur. A dual-use aspect of the technology may include the following applications - (1) monitoring the vitals of workers in high-heat environments to determine when they need to come out of the heat before the effects of heat stress become a physcial risk factor, and (2) monitoring of the lone worker in a hazardous environment.

The band has been designed in wear-and-forget format with multiple bio-medical sensors, including GPS, pulse-ox, pulse-rate, and electromyography sensors integrated with a microcontroller and Bluetooth communications link on a flexible high-density substrate. The smartphone app has been designed with the required logic for processing the vital signs of the operator with the capability of autonomous deicision making for contacting emergency services with the location of the operator if the operator's well-being has deteriorated. The approach involved the design of of flexible substrate for the assembly and integration of sensors with a microcontroller for the acquisition of signals and a Bluetooth module for the transmission of vital data to the paired smartphone.

The multi-sensor bio-medical band will be worn by the operator working in a confined space. The band will have multiple sensors, including GPS, pulse-ox, pulse-rate, and electromyography sensors for measurement of the loss of blood oxygenation resulting from depletion of oxygen in the environment of the fuel tank, abrupt changes in the pulse rate resulting from anxiety or claustrophobia, loss of consciouness, myocardial infarcation, stroke, bradycardia or aneurysm. Additional sensors can be added if needed to address a broader range of medical conditions. The raw data from the sensors is gathered by the embedded microcontroller on the wearable band through the GPIO and trasmitted via Bluetooth sensor on the USART port of the microcontroller to the paired smartphone. The LifeSaver App installed on the smartphone receives transmitted data via the Bluetooth module and processes the data checking for imminent danger to the operator. If the status is okay, the application continues to monitor silently. However, if the operator is in imminent danger or in need of medical services, the application autonomously contacts emergency medical services with the GPS location of the operator and details the condition of the operator in addition to the nature of the medical condition. Emergency medical personnel can be dispatched to the location of the operator immediately without any action needed on the part of the operator. 


Auburn High School and Auburn Junior High students visit Flexible Additive Manufacturing Laboratory on E-DayE-Day-1.jpg
On February 23rd, we had the pleasure of hosting Auburn High School and Auburn Junior High School on E-Day. Students considering a career in engineering joined us to get a sense of the look and feel of the excitement of studying engineering at Auburn University. E-Day is a chance for students to learn about research programs, laboratory facilities, and research opportunities. Seventh through twelfth graders had an opportunity to chat one-on-one with students and faculty and experience the interactive exhibits, including the new additive flexible electronics laboratory with capabilities of the vertically integrated manufacturing activities from design, fabrication, assembly, and test of flexible electronics. The students had a chance to see additive technology in action by printing electronic circuits and sensors on non-planar and flexible surfaces. In addition, they had a chance to view methods used to study the reliability of the assembled structures in operational environments.



Professor Lall teaches Short-Course on Flexible Device Integration and Packaging at the 2018 FLEX Conference
Professor Lall co-taught a course on Flexible Device Integration and Packaging at the 2018 FLEX Conference with Doug Hackler (President and CEO of American Semiconductor) and Kurt Christensen (Senior Research Scientist at Optomec). The course, which was well attended, covered a number of topics including the manufacturing processes for the fabrication of printed electronics, die-thinning processes, assembly processes needed to assemble ultra-thin chips on low temperature substrates, and the interconnection materials and technologies for first- and second-level interconnects. In addition, Professor Lall presented two papers and spoke at the High Performance Flexible Printed Electronics Special Session: 
Lall, P., Hackler, D., Christensen, K., Short-Course: Flexible Device Integration and Packaging, 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterrey, CA, 
February 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., Zhang, H., Lall, R., Development of Flexible Biometric Sensor Band with LifeSaver APP, Session-7: Health Monitoring Systems, 
2018 FLEX Conference, Monterrey, CA, Feburary 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., Narangaparambil, J., Abrol, A., Test Protocols for Flexible Substrates in Wearable Applications, Session-14: Standards and Reliability, 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterrey, CA, February 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., High Performance Flexible Printed Circuits, NextFlex Special Session: High Performance Flexible Systems Roadmapping and Strategy, 8am-11am, February 16th, Held concurrently with the 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterrey, CA, Feburary 12-15, 2018


Shantanu Deshpande Wins ASME 2017 Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division Student Member of the Year Award
Shantanu Deshpande, doctoral candidate in mechanical engineering, won the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' 2017 Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division Student Member of the Year Award. The Award recognizes a current student who has excelled in research and has shown promise to be a strong contributor in the field of electronic and photonic packaging. Only one student is selected every year for this national award. After earning his bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Pune University, Deshpande came to Auburn for his doctoral studies in 2012. He is working on reliability of copper wirebonding in harsh environments in the Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics under the direction of Pradeep Lall, the John and Anne MacFarlane Professor of Mechanical Engineering.


 

 

Conference Publications
  • Zhang, H., Lall, P., A Comparison of Temperature and Humidity Effects on Phosphor Converted LED Package and the Prediction of Remaining Useful Life with State Estimation, Proceedings from LED A.R.T. Symposium, Atlanta, GA, November 17- 19, 2015
  • Zhang, H., Lall, P., Phosphor Converted LED Failure Mechanisms Related to Phosphor Layer, Proceedings from LED A.R.T. Symposium, Atlanta, GA, November 17- 19, 2015
  • Lall, P., Zhang, D., Suhling, J., Locker, D., Anand Viscoplasticity Model for the Effect of Aging on Mechanical Behavior of SAC305 Operating at High Strain Rate and High Temperature, Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2015,) Houston, TX, Paper # 53751, pp. 1- 11, November 13-19, 2015
  • Lall, P., Mirza, K., A Study on the Effect of Mean Cyclic Temperature on the Thermal Fatigue Reliability of SAC Solder Joints Using Digital Image Correlation, Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2015,) Houston, TX, Paper # 53476, pp. 1- 11, November 13-19, 2015
  • Lall, P., Luo, Y., Nguyen, L., Multiphysics Model for Chlorine-Ion Related Corrosion in Cu-Al Wirebond Microelectronic Packages, Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2015,) Houston, TX, Paper # 53742, pp. 1- 12, November 13- 19, 2015
  • Lall, P., Kothari, N., Foley, J., Lowe, R., A Novel Micro-CT Data Based Finite Element Modeling Technique to Study Reliability of Densely Packed Fuze Assemblies, Proceedings of 86th Shock and Vibration Symposium (SAVE ’15,) Orlando, FL, October 5- 8, 2015
  • Zhao, C., Shen, C., Hai, Z., Zhang, J., Bozack, M., Evans, J., Long Term Aging Effects on the Reliability of Lead Free Solder Joints In Ball Grid Array Packages With Various Pitch Sizes and Ball Alignments, Proceedings of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 199- 206, September 27- October 1, 2015
  • Raj. A., Thirugnanasambandam, S., Sanders, T., Sridhar, S., Evans, J., Bozack, M., Johnson, W., Thermal Shock Reliability Test on Multiple Doped Low Creep Lead Free Solder Paste and Solder Ball Grid Array Packages, Proceeding of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 354- 361, September 27- October 1, 2015
  • Lall, P., Luo, Y., Nguyen, L., Corrosion and Contaminant Diffusion Multi-Physics Model for Copper-Aluminum Wirebonds in High Temperature High Humidity Environments, Proceedings of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 14-27, September 27- October 1, 2015
  • Sanders, T., Thirugnanasambandam, S., Evans, J., Bozack, M., Suhling, J., Johnson, W., Component Level Reliability for High Temperature Power Computing With SAC305 and Alternative High Reliability Solders, Proceeding of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 144- 150, September 27- October 1, 2015
  • Lall, P., Wei, J., Deformation and Strain Measurements in Operational Electronics Using X-Ray Micro-CT and Digital Volume Correlation, Proceeding of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 515- 526, September 27- October 1, 2015
  • Lall, P., Zhang, D., Locker, D., Damage Prediction in SAC305 Lead Free Electronics Subjected to Mechanical Shock After Long-Term Storage, Proceeding of the SMTAI, Rosemont, IL, pp. 904- 914, September 27- October 1, 2015