The Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics (CAVE3) at Auburn University is dedicated to working with industry in developing and implementing new technologies for the packaging and manufacturing of electronics with special emphasis on the cost, harsh environment and reliability requirements of the vehicle industry.

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Center personnel work directly with the member companies to identify challenges and opportunities for new materials, processes and approaches to the production of electronics. The member companies select the research projects. Semi-annual project reviews, visits, monthly updates and frequent phone calls maintain a close interaction between the industrial members and Center researchers. CAVE3 currently has 30 members teamed up with Auburn representing material, component, equipment and electronics assembly companies.

Journal Publications
  • Lall, P., Deshpande, S., Nguyen, L., Development of Model for the Identification of Process Parameters for Wet Decapsulation of Copper-Aluminum Wirebond in PEMs, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Volume 7, No. 8, doi: 10.1109/TCPMT.2017.2672498, pp. 1280-1292, August 2017.
  • Lall, P., Mirza, K.M., Harsha, M., Goebel, K., Microstructural Indicators for Assessment of the Effect of Prolonged and Intermittent Storage on Reliability of Lead-free Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Volume 16, No. 3, doi: 10.1109/TDMR.2016.2597740, pp. 304-317, September 2016.
  • Lall, P., Zhang, D., Yadav, V., Locker, D., High strain rate constitutive behavior of SAC105 and SAC305 leadfree solder during operation at high temperature, Microelectronics Reliability, Volume 62, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2016.03.014, pp. 4-17, July 2016.
  • Lall, P., Deshpande, S., Nguyen, L., Murtuza, M., Microstructural Indicators for Prognostication of Copper-Aluminum Wire Bond Reliability Under High-Temperature Storage and Temperature Humidity, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Volume 6, No. 4, doi: 10.1109/TCPMT.2015.2495164, pp. 569-585, April 2016.
  • Mustafa, M., Suhling, J.C., Lall, Experimental determination of fatigue behavior of lead free solder joints in microelectronic packaging subject to isothermal aging, Microelectronics Reliability, Volume 56, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2015.10.021, pp. 136-147, January 2016.
Conference Publications
  • Chen, C., Suhling, J., Lall, P., Improved Approaches for FEA Analyses of PBGA Packages Subjected to Thermal Cycling, Proceedings of the ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems (InterPACK2018), San Francisco, CA, Paper # 8398, pp. 1-10, August 27-30, 2018.
  • Lall, P., Thomas, T., Suhling, J., Prognostication of Damage in Automotive Underhood Electronics Subjected to Temperature and Vibration, Proceedings of the IEEE 2018 Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC 2018), San Diego, CA, pp. 1330-1341, May 29-June 1, 2018.
  • Chowdhury, M., Hoque, M.A., Fahim, A., Suhling, J., Hamasha, S., Lall, P., Microstructural Evolution in SAC305 and SAC-Bi Solders Subjected to Mechanical Cycling, Proceedings of the ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems (InterPACK2018), San Francisco, CA, Paper # 8414, pp. 1-10, August 27-30, 2018.

Announcements

Fall
 2018

Students from Auburn University at the ITHERM 2018 Conference in San Diego, CA

CAVE3 Students attended the ECTC 2018 and ITHERM 2018 conferences in San Diego, CA from May 29-June 1, 2018. They won top awards for their papers and presentations. Overall, 40+ papers were presented by CAVE3 Researchers. Presentations were executed in both the oral and poster sessions. A list of the technical papers presented is included in the technical publications section of the Fall 2018 newsletter.

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      Vikas Yadav            Jinesh Narangaparambil

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    Abdullah Fahim                  Nakul Kothari

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  Shantanu Deshpande           Kartik Goyal

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   Mohd Aminul Hoque           Kalyan Dornala



CAVE3 Researchers Win Top Honors at ITHERM 2018 Conference in San Diego, CA

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   Professor Lall with Amrit Abrol

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Professor Lall (right) receiving the
Outstanding Paper Award at ITHERM
2018 from Thomas Brunschwiler,
General Chair (left)

Outstanding Paper Award, 

Mechanics and Reliability Track, Oral Session
Lall, P., Luo, Y., Nguyen, L., A Novel Numerical Metaphysics Framework for the Modeling of Cu-Al Wire Bond Corrosion under HAST Conditions, ITHERM, San Diego, CA, U.S., pp. 1177-1184, May 29-June 1, 2018.

Outstanding Paper Award, Poster Session
Lall, P., Abrol, A., Leever, B., Marsh, J., Flexible Power-Source Survivability Assurance under Bending Loads and Operating Temperatures Representative of Stresses of Daily Motion, ITHERM, San Diego, CA, U.S., pp. 1027-1035, May 29-June 1, 2018.

Best Paper Award, Poster Session
Fahim, A., Ahmed, S., Suhling, J., Lall, P., Mechanical Characterization of Intermetallic Compounds in SAC Solder Joints at Elevated Temperatures, ITHERM, San Diego, CA, U.S., pp. 1081-1091, May 29-June 1, 2018.


Lall wins IEEE Outstanding Sustained Technical Contributions Award

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Professor Lall (left) receiving the Outstanding Sustained
Technical Contributions Award from Avram Bar-Cohen,
President 
of IEEE Electronic Packaging Society,
at ECTC 2018 in San Diego, CA


Pradeep Lall, MacFarlane Endowed Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Auburn University, is the 2018 recipient of IEEE's Outstanding Sustained Technical Contributions Award for outstanding sustained contributions to the design, reliability, and prognostics for harsh environment electronics systems. The award recognized his seminal contributions to the field of harsh environment electronics. Lall is widely credited with the development of leading indicators of failure for prognostics health management of electronic systems to allow for early identification of faults that may impair system operation. He also is the author and co-author of over 500 journal and conference papers in the fields of electronics reliability, safety, energy efficiency, and survivability.

"This award is a recognition of Dr. Lall's international reputation and the impact of his contributions to state-of-the-art innovation", said Christopher B. Roberts, Dean of the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering at Auburn University. "His work has positioned Auburn Engineering to be a leader in harsh environment electronics."

"Electronics is pervasive in today's consumer products and many of the functions are safety critical", Lall said. "Take present day automobiles -- electronics enables much of the safety critical circuitry in present-day cars", he added. "Examples include lane-departure warning systems, collision avoidance systems, and park and drive assist systems. Given the level of criticality and need for continued reliable operation, it is important that problems be identified prior catastophic failure. Many electronics reside under the hood of the automobile where temperatures and vibration loads are very high. Ensuring survivability for sustained operation of electronics is a continuing evolving challenge with the miniaturization of electronics."

Lall joined the Auburn University faculty in 2002 after a distinguished industry career at Motorola, where he worked on the development and manufacture of wireless products such as cellphones and two-way radios. He is also a fellow of IEEE. The honor was conferred at the IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), a premier international event attended by more than 1,700 individuals, during May 2018 in San Diego, CA. Lall received $3,000 and a certificate for his achievements. IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization for the advancement of technology. He is also a member of the Technical Council and Governing Council of NextFlex, and is the Director of the NSF Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics at Auburn University.

Lall was previously recognized by the National Science Foundation as the recipient of the Schwarzkopf Prize for Technology Innovation in 2016. He also is the recipient of The Alabama Academy of Science's Wright A. Gardener Award, the IEEE Exceptional Technical Achievement Award, the ASME-EPPD Applied Mechanics Award, SMTA's Member of Technical Distinction Award, Auburn University's Creative Research and Scholarship Award, the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering Senior Faculty Research Award, and 20 'Best Paper' awards at national and international conferences.


Where are they now?

CAVE3 has a long history of making an impact in workforce development in the field of harsh environment electronics, so alumni have gone on to have successful careers. I want to highlight two former students who I met with at conferences earlier this year. 

Rahul Vaidya graduated from Auburn University in 2010 with a M.S. Degree in Mechanical Engineering. Rahul's research was focused on the topic of prognostics health management. Presently, Rahul works for Oculus VR (which is part of Facebook) as a reliability engineer. Prior to joining Oculus, he worked for Amazon Lab126 and Cisco Systems. Rahul was a Graduate Research Assistant in CAVE3 and advised by Professor Lall.
Thesis: Interrogation of System State of Lead-Free Electronics Subjected to Mixed Sequential Steady-State and Cyclic Thermal Environments (2010)

Chandan Bhat graduated from Auburn University in 2008 with a M.S. Degree in Mechanical Engineering. His research was focused on the topic of prognostics health management. Presently, Chandan works for Xilinx as a Semiconductor Packaging Engineer. Prior to joining Xilinx, he worked for Cree for over 9 years. Chandan was a Graduate Research Assistant in CAVE3 and advised by Professor Lall.
Thesis: Solder Joint Reliability & Prognostication of Lead-Free Electronics in Harsh Thermo-Mechanical Environments (2008)

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Left to Right: Professor Lall with
Rahul Vaidya at the IRPS Conference
in San Francisco, CA, March 13, 2018

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Left to Right: Chandan Bhat
with Professor Lall at the ECTC
Conference in San Diego, CA,
May 31, 2018


Spring 2018

Professor Lall Presents the AU Biometric Band at the NextFlex Innovation Day on September 20-21
,
2017

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CAVE3 had a booth at the NextFlex Innovation Day held in San Jose, CA on September 20-21, 2017. Professor Pradeep Lall presented the Biometric Band and LifeSaver App developed at Auburn University's CAVE3 Electronics Research Center. The biometric band is capable of acquiring vitals of the wearer and transmits them wirelessly to a paired smartphone. The band was designed, and fabricated, in the NSF-CAVE3 Electronic Research Center labs.

The intended application for the technology product demonstrator (TPD) is for operators working on the inspection and maintenance of aircraft fuel tanks. The fuel tanks are small and confined spaces in the aircraft, which reside in the fuselage and inside the wings. Inspection and maintenance operations require the operators to climb inside the confined space of the fuel tanks. Oxygen levels in a confined space may become depleted due to oxidation or depletion by another gas. The typical concentration of oxygen in the environment is 20.9 percent. When oxygen levels drop to the range of 19.5 percent to 12 percent, judgment is impaired, and personnel may experience an increased pulse rate and fatigue. If levels drop from 12% to 6%, fatigue will worsen and nausea and vomiting will occur. A dual-use aspect of the technology may include the following applications -- (1) monitoring the vitals of workers in high-heat environments to determine when workers need to come out of the heat before the effects of heat stress become a physical risk factor (2) monitoring of a lone worker in a hazardous environment.

The band has been designed in wear-and-forget format with multiple bio-medical sensors, including GPS, pulse-ox, pulse-rate, and electromyography sensor integrated with a microcontroller and Bluetooth communications link on a flexible high-density substrate. The smartphone app has been designed with the required logic processing the vital signals of the operator with capability of autonomous decision-making for contacting emergency services with the location of the operator if the operator's well-being has deteriorated. The approach involved the design of flexible substrate for the assembly and integration of sensors with a microcontroller for the acquisition of signals and a Bluetooth module for the transmission of vital data to the paired smartphone. The multi-sensor bio-medical band will be worn by the operator working in a confined space. The band will have multiple sensors, including GPS, pulse-ox, pulse-rate, and electromyography sensor for measurement of the loss of blood oxygenation resulting from depletion of oxygen in the environment in the fuel tank, abrupt changes in the pulse rate resulting from anxiety or claustrophobia, loss of consciousness, myocardial infraction, stroke, bradycardia or aneurysm.

Additional sensors can be added if needed to address a broader range of medical conditions. The raw data from the sensors is gathered by the embedded microcontroller on the wearable band through the GPIO and transmitted via the Bluetooth sensor on the USART port of the microcontroller to the paired smartphone. The LifeSaver App installed on the smartphone receives the transmitted data via the Bluetooth module and processes the data while checking for imminent danger to the operator. If the status is okay, the app continues to monitor silently. However, if the operator is in imminent danger or in need of medical attention, the app autonomously contacts emergency medical services with the GPS location of the operator and details on the operator's condition. Emergency medical personnel can be dispatched to the location of the operator immediately without any action needed on the part of the operator.  


Auburn High and Junior High School students visit Flexible Additive Manufacturing Laboratory on E-Day

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On February 23, 2018, we had the pleasure of hosting Auburn High School and Auburn Junior High School on E-Day. Students considering a career in engineering joined us to get a sense of the look and feel of the excitement of studying engineering at Auburn University. E-Day is a chance to learn about the reserach programs, laboratory facilities, and research opportunities offered in the College of Engineering. Seventh through twelfth graders had an opportunity to chat one-on-one with students and faculty and experience the interactive exhibits, including the new additive flexible electronics laboratory with capabilities of the vertically integrated manufacturing activities from design, fabrication, assembly, and tests of flexible electronics. The students also had a chance to see additive technology in action by through printing electronic circuits and sensors on non-planar and flexible surfaces. In addition, they had a chance to view methods used to study the reliability of the assembled structures in operational environments.


Professor Lall teaches Short-Course on Flexible Device Integration and Packaging at the 2018 FLEX Conference

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Professor Lall co-taught a course on Flexible Device Integration and Packaging at the 2018 FLEX Conference with Doug Hackler (President and CEO of American Semiconductor) and Kurt Christensen (Senior Research Scientist at Optomec). The course, which was well attended, covered a number of topic, including the manufacturing processes for the fabrication of printed electronics, die-thinning processes, assembly processes needed for the production of ultra-thin chips on low temperature substrates, and the interconnection materials and technologies for first- and second-level interconnects. In addition, Professor Lall also presented two papers and spoke at the High Performance Flexible Printed Electronics Special Session:

Lall, P., Hackler, D., Christensen, K., Short-Course: Flexible Device Integration and Packaging, 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterey, CA, February 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., Zhang, H., Lall, R., Development of Flexible Biometric Sensor Band with LifeSaver App, Session-7: Health Monitoring Systems, 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterey, CA, February 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., Narangaparambil, J., Abrol, A., Test Protocols for Flexible Substrates in Wearable Applications, Session-14: Standards and Reliability, 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterey, CA, February 12-15, 2018
Lall, P., High Performance Flexible Printed Circuits, NextFlex Special Session: High Performance Flexible Systems Roadmapping and Strategy, 8:00 am-11:00 am, February 16, 2018, Held concurrently with the 2018 FLEX Conference, Monterey, CA, February 12-15, 2018

Shantanu Deshpande Wins ASME 2017 Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division Student Member of the Year Award

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Shantanu Deshpande, doctoral candidate in Mechanical Engineering, won the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' 2017 Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division Student of the Year Award. The Award recognizes a current student who has excelled in research, and has shown promise to be a strong contributor in the field of electronic and photonic packaging. Only one student is selected every year for this national award. After earning his bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Pune University, Deshpande came to Auburn University for his doctoral studies in 2012. He is working on reliability of coppor wirebonding in harsh environments in the Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics under the direction of Pradeep Lall, the John and Anne MacFarlane Professor of Mechanical Engineering.