Shock and Vibration

Electronic equipment can be subjected to many different forms of vibration over a wide range of frequencies and acceleration levels. It can be said that all electronic equipment will be subjected to some type of vibration at some time in its life. If the vibration is not due to an active association with some sort of a machine or a moving vehicle, then it may be due to transporting the equipment from the manufacturer to the customer. Vibration is usually considered to be an undesirable condition and can produce many different types of failures in electronic equipment. Mechanical vibrations can have different sources. In vehicles such as automobiles, trucks and trains most of the vibration is due to the rough surfaces over which these vehicles travel. In airplanes, missiles and rockets the vibration is due to jet and rocket engines and to aerodynamic buffeting. Portable electronic devices such as pagers, palm-top organizers and compactly designed cell phones are vulnerable to damage from mechanical shock and vibration. With a drop from the desk or an inadvertent bump against a wall, closely assembled components can collide rendering the device inoperable. Over a period of time, the post-shock ringing vibration can fatigue boards and connectors, creating hard to spot electrical problems. Therefore, the testing of the electronic assemblies should include shock and vibration analysis.

Portable products face the challenges of ever increasing functional density, shorter product cycles, and pressure to reduce cost. Increasing functional density has lead to the explosive growth in chip scale package (CSP) usage. The expected product life for a portable product is typically short compared to many other product categories; however, portable products must survive multiple drops. The decreasing I/O pitch of CSPs and the resulting smaller pads and solder joints, make the drop requirement more challenging. There are two approaches to improving drop reliability. The first is the mechanical design of the product to minimize the shock and flexing of the printed circuit board that occurs when the product is dropped. This approach places pressure on the time-to-market constraint. The second approach is to use underfills to mechanically reinforce the CSP solder joints. Underfills add cost and cycle time to the manufacturing process. Development of a robust mechanical design, capable of resisting multiple drops is thus used more frequently as the preferred approach. Electronics inside portable electronic products may be subjected from few hundred Gs to thousands of G's during an accidental drop from near ear-level (on average approximately 5 ft drop height). Use of experimental approach to test out every possible design variation, and identify the one that gives the maximum design margin is often not feasible because of product development cycle time and cost constraints. There is a fundamental need for understanding and predicting the electronic failure mechanics in shock and drop-impact. Figure 1 shows the drop orientation of printed circuit board assembly in vertical and horizontal (JEDEC) orientations.

Figure 1: Drop Orientation of Printed Circuit Board (a) Vertical (b) Horizontal (JEDEC)
Figure 1: Drop Orientation of Printed Circuit Board (a) Vertical (b) Horizontal (JEDEC).


Figure 2: Explicit-Finite Element Model for Test Board in Zero-Degree JEDEC Drop Configuration
Figure 2: Explicit-Finite Element Model for Test Board in Zero-Degree JEDEC Drop Configuration.


Transient dynamic deformation of the test boards is the wave propagation problem. Explicit finite element model of drop impact of test board under zero-degree-JEDEC drop orientation is shown in Figure 2. The JEDEC specifications require that the PCB be mounted with packages facing downwards, and mounted on a rigid base with the help of four-corner standoffs. The peak acceleration for this test is 1500 Gs at 0.5 ms half-sine pulse. The transient drop event is modeled using commercially available finite element code Abaqus ®.


Representative Recent Publications

Board Trace Fatigue Models and Design Guidelines for Electronics Under Shock-Impact Lall P., Angral A., Suhling J., Proceedings of ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas, NV, June 2-5, 2010.
Digital-Image Correlation and XFEM Based Shock-Reliability Models for Leadfree and Advanced Interconnects Lall P., Kulkarni M., Angral A., Panchagade D., Suhling J., Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2010. ECTC 2010. 60th, 91-105, 2010.
Peridynamic-Models Using Finite Elements for Shock and Vibration Reliability of Lead-free Electronics Lall P., Shantaram S., Panchagade D., Proceedings of ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas, NV, June 2-5, 2010.
Self-Organized Mapping of Failure Modes in Portable Electronics Subjected to Drop and Shock Lall P., Gupta P., Panchagade D., Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2010. ECTC 2010. 60th, 1195-1208, 2010.
Prognostics Using Kalman-Filter Models and Metrics for Risk Assessment in BGAs Under Shock and Vibration Loads Lall P., Lowe R., and Goebel K., Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2010. ECTC 2010. 60th, 889-901, 2010.
Use of Prognostics in Risk-Based Decision Making For BGAs Under Shock And Vibration Loads Lall P., Lowe R., and Goebel K., Proceedings of ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas, NV, June 2-5, 2010.
Fault-Isolation in Portable Electronics Subjected to Drop And Shock Lall P., Gupta P., Panchagade D., Angral A., Proceedings of ITHERM 2010, Las Vegas, NV, June 2-5, 2010.
Anomaly-Detection And Prognostication Of Electronics Subjected To Shock And Vibration Lall, P, Gupta, P., Angral, A., Suhling, J., ASME InterPACK, pp. 1-15, San Francisco, CA, USA, July 19-23, 2009.
Explicit Submodeling and Digital Image Correlation Based Life-Prediction of Leadfree Electronics under Shock-Impact Lall, P., Shantaran, S., Angral, A., Kulkarni, M., Proceedings of 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2009, pp. 542-555, San Diego, California USA, May 25-29, 2009.
Fault-Mode Classification for Health Monitoring of Electronics Subjected to Drop and Shock Lall, P., Gupta, P., Panchagade, D., Angral, A., Proceedings of 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2009, pp. 668-681, San Diego, California USA, May 25-29, 2009.
Prognostics and Condition Monitoring of Electronics Lall, P., Gupta, P., Panchagade, D., Kulkarni, M., Suhling, J., Hofmeister, J., Proceedings of Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Micro/Nanelectronics and Systems (EuroSimE 2009), pp. 1-14, Delft, Netherlands, April 27-29, 2009.
Cohesive-Zone Modeling and Life-Prediction of Leadfree Electronics Under Shock-Impact Lall, P., Shantaram, S., Angral, A., Kulkarni, M., Proceedings of the 2009 SEM International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, pp. 1-18, Albuquerque New Mexico USA, June 1-4, 2009.
Fault-Detection and Isolation Algorithms for Health Monitoring of Electronics Subjected to Shock and Vibration Lall, P., Gupta, P., Angral, A., Panchagade, D., Proceedings of the 2009 SEM International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, pp. 1-19, Albuquerque New Mexico USA, June 1-4, 2009.
Damage Accumulation And Life-Prediction Models For Snagcu Leadfree Electronics Under Shock-Impact Lall, P., Shantaram, S., Angral, A., Kulkarni, M., Suhling, J., ASME InterPACK, pp. 1-15, San Francisco, CA, USA, July 19-23, 2009.
Leading-Indicators Based On Impedance Spectroscopy For Prognostication Of Electronics Under Shock And Vibration Loads Lall, P., Lowe, R., Suhling, J. Goebel, K., ASME InterPACK, pp. 1-12, San Francisco, CA, USA, July 19-23, 2009.
Resistance Spectroscopy-based Condition Monitoring for Prognostication of High Reliability Electronics Under Shock-Impact Lall. P., Lowe, R., Goebel, K., Proceedings of 59th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2009, pp. 1245-1255, San Diego, California USA, May 25-29, 2009.
Design Envelopes and Optical Feature Extraction Techniques for Survivability of SnAg Leadfree Packaging Architectures under Shock and Vibration Lall, P., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Pandher, R., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2008, pp. 1036-1047, Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2008.
Time-Frequency and Auto-Regressive Techniques for Prognostication of Shock-Impact Lall, P., Gupta, P., Kulkarni, M., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., Hofmeister, J., Proceedings of 58th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2008, pp. 1196-1207, Orlando, FL, May 27-30, 2008.
Health Monitoring Of Implantable Biological Electronic Systems By Statistical Pattern Recognition Techniques Lall, P., Gupta, P., Choudhary, P., Kulkarni, M., Suhling, J., Proceedings of ITHERM 2008, pp. 726-737, Orlando, FL, May 28-31, 2008.
Development Of Survivability Envelopes For Snag Leadfree Packaging Architecures Under Shock And Vibration Lall, P., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of ITHERM 2008, pp. 822-835, Orlando, FL, May 28-31, 2008.
Prognostication And Health Monitoring Of Electronics In Implantable Biological Systems Lall, P., Gupta, P., Kulkarni, M., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 1-15, Boston, MA, Oct 31- Nov 6, 2008.
Damage Progression using Speckle-Correlation and High-Speed Imaging for Survivability of Leadfree Packaging under Shock Lall, P., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Panchaagde, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of the 2008 SEM XI International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, pp. 1-16, Orlando, FL, June 2-5, 2008.
Survivability Assessment Of Sac Leadfree Packaging Under Shock And Vibration Using Optical High-Speed Imaging Lall, P., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of the 2008 SMTA International, pp. 519-531, Orlando, FL, Aug 17-21, 2008.
Feature Extraction and Health Monitoring using Image Correlation for Survivability of Leadfree Packaging under Shock and Vibration Lall, P., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Gupta, P., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., EuroSIME, pp. 1-15, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Konzerthaus, Germany, April 21-23, 2008.
Cohesive-Zone Explicit Sub-Modeling for Shock Life-Prediction in Electronics Lall, P., Gupte, S., Choudhary, P., Suhling, J., Darveaux, R., Proceedings of 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2007, pp. 515-527, Reno, NV, May 29- Jun 1, 2007.
High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Transient-Shock Reliability of Electronics Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Suhling, J., Schrier, H., Proceedings of 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2007, pp. 924-939, Reno, NV, May 29 - Jun 1, 2007.
Statistical Pattern Recognition and Built-in Reliability Test for Feature Extraction and Health Monitoring of Electronics under Shock Loads Lall, P., Choudhary, P., Gupte, S., Suhling, J., Hofmeister, J., Proceedings of 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2007, pp. 1161-1178, Reno, NV, May 29 - Jun 1, 2007.
Time-Frequency Analysis And Built-In Reliability Test For Health Monitoring Of Electronics Under Shock Loads Lall, P., Choudhary, P., Gupte, S., Gupta, P., Suhling, J., Hofmeister, J., 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 1-19, Seattle, WA, Nov 11-15, 2007.
Explicit FE-Models and High Speed DIC for Transient-Dynamics of Electronics Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Iyengar, D., Shantaram, S., Suhling, J., Schrier, H., Proceedings of the 2007 SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, pp. 1-17, Springfield, MA, Jun 4-6, 2007.
Health Monitoring for Damage Initiation & Progression during Mechanical Shock in Electronic Assemblies Lall, P., Choudhary, P., Gupte, S., Suhling, J., Proceedings of 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2006, pp. 85-94, San Diego, CA, May 30 - Jun 2, 2006.
Solder-Joint Reliability in Electronics Under Shock and Vibration using Explicit Finite-Element Sub-modeling Lall, P., Gupte, S., Choudhary, P., Suhling, J., Proceedings of 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2006, pp. 428-435, San Diego, CA, May 30 - Jun 2, 2006.
Condition-Based Assessment Of Damage Progression During Mechanical Shock In Electronic Assemblies Lall, P., Choudhary, P., Gupte, S., Suhling, J, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 1-10, Chicago, IL, Nov 5-10, 2006.
Life Prediction and Damage Equivalency for Shock Survivability of Electronic Components Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Iyengar, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of ITHERM 2006, pp. 804-816, San Diego, May 30-Jun2, 2006.
Life prediction and damage equivalency for shock survivability of electronic components Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Iyengar, D., Suhling, J., Proceedings of the 2006 SMTA International, pp. 361-375, Rosemont, IL, Sept 24-28, 2006.
Shock and vibration survivability prediction using failure envelopes for electronic and MEMS packaging Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Choudhary, P., Suhling, J., Gupte, S., 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 1-12, Orlando, FL, Nov 5-11, 2005.
Models For Shock And Vibration Survivability Of Electronic And Mems Packaging Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Choudhary, P., Suhling, J., Gupte, S, Proceedings of InterPACK 2005, pp. 1-12, San Francisco, CA, Jul 17-22, 2005.
Models for Reliability Prediction of Fine-Pitch BGAs and CSPs in Shock and Drop-Impact Lall, P., Panchagade, D., Liu, Y., Johnson, W., Suhling, J., Proceedings of 54th Electronic Components & Technology Conference 2004, pp. 1296-1303, Las Vegas, NV, Jun 1-4, 2004.
Drop Reliability Of Corner Bonded Csp In Portable Products Tian, G., Liu, Y., Lall, P., Johnson, W., Abderrahman, S., Palmer, M., Islam, N., Suhling, J., Crane, L., Proceedings of InterPACK 2003, pp. 1-9, Maui, HI, Jul 6-11, 2003.
Drop-Impact Reliability Of Chip-Scale Packages In Handheld Products Tian, G., Liu, Y., Lall, P., Johnson, W., Abderrahman, S., Palmer, M., Islam, N., Panchagade, D., Suhling, J., 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 1-9, Washington, D.C., Nov 15-21, 2003.